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Psicologia de trading

A psicologia de trading diz respeito aos componentes mentais e emocionais do processo de tomada de decisões de negociação. Representa as áreas da personalidade e comportamento de um trader que têm impacto nos resultados das negociações.

Notably, there are many ways in which these aspects of one’s character are exhibited, be it through fear, greed, arrogance and even hope. But of the four emotions, fear and greed are considered to have a primary influence on trading psychology, particularly in regard to risk taking and discipline.

Being too greedy may lead to decisions that are considered overly risky. Being too scared can result in missed opportunities or hindered trading with little capital gain. Developing self-awareness is likely to help a trader identify recurring negative behavioural patterns and the way they cloud sound judgement.

This enables the trader to address the behaviours to ensure objectivity and rational trading decisions.

Finanças comportamentais: A influência dos viéses.

The study of trading psychology looks at the reasons behind traders making potentially foolish decisions in the market or pertinent to other financial matters. Behavioural finance in particular melds psychology and finance to investigate the impact of human behaviour on financial choices and trading outcomes.

In other words, it identifies psychological influences and biases that drive trader and financial practitioner behaviour and explores how this behaviour can affect market outcomes. Behavioural finance is also examined to gain a better understanding of different outcomes across a range of sectors and industries.

Additionally, behavioural finance proposes that financial participants are not entirely rational or perfectly self-controlled. Instead, they are influenced by psychological factors, and possess relatively normal, self-controlling tendencies. Behavioural finance also purports that decision making in the context of finance is driven by one’s mental and physical wellbeing. 

In other words, one’s mental state fluctuates based on the level of their overall health. Some of the most common behavioural biases include overconfidence, herd behaviour, mental accounting, emotional gap, anchoring, self-attribution, and loss aversion.

Trading emocional

Another popular term falling within the scope of trading psychology is emotional trading (or emotional investing). Similar to behavioural finance, emotional trading refers to behavioural impulses triggered by market volatilities, resulting in emotional buying or selling of assets.


O trading emocional pode ser influenciado por diversas emoções, como pânico, ganância, excitação, medo ou até mesmo excesso de confiança.


Some common examples of emotional trading decisions include overtrading, panic selling, confirmation bias, and others. Getting a handle on emotional trading requires emotional intelligence to maintain discipline and manage psychological stressors.


Engaging in ongoing learning and investing in personal development will help a trader acquire vital skills like self-regulation, empathy, and confidence.

Instintos de negociação

An additional key aspect of trading psychology is the concept of trading instincts, i.e., the intuitive or gut feelings that traders may experience when making decisions in financial markets. 

 

Trusting one’s instincts however comes with a robust self-awareness and having the ability to separate a legitimate, rational decision from one driven by emotional impulse. It’s realising that one’s objectivity may be skewed or clouded by bias and taking the steps to rectify the problem.

 

Três dos fenómenos psicológicos mais comuns com impacto na tomada de decisões racionais incluem viés sensorial (formar uma opinião com base em informação potencialmente tendenciosa/enviesada), evitar o vago (medo do desconhecido) e tangibilidade de antecipação (quando a sensação de antecipação se torna o foco, em vez de ser o de atingir aquilo que é antecipado, em primeiro lugar).

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